FANDOM



Operasi dasarEdit

  • Menerima input
  • Memproses
  • Menghasilkan input
  • Menyimpan


Bahasa KomputerEdit

 Bit (binary digit) :Edit

Unit terkecil dari informasi yang dapat diproses komputer. Memiliki 2 kemungkinan, 0 / 1

Bit terbagi 2, sebagai bilangan dan sebagai kode:

  • Sebagai bilangan : bilangan desimal kombinasi 0 dan 1 (angka diluar 0 dan 1 ditulis dalam kode yang terdiri dari angka 0 dan 1)
  • Sebagai kode : Terbagi 2 lagi yaitu :
  • ASCII : tiap karakter memiliki kode 8 bit , terdiri dari 256 kode ( 26 huruf, 10 digit, dan beberapa tanda baca) , hanya untuk penggunaan dalam bahasa Inggris
  • Unicode : memiliki > 10.000 karakter, dapat digunakan untuk bahasa Inggris (huruf Latin) dan bahasa-bahasa lain

Byte :Edit

Kumpulan 8 bit, merepresentasikan 256 pesan (memiliki 256 karakter yang berbeda-beda, termasuk huruf dan angka). 1 byte merepresentasikan 1 karakter ASCII

CPU dan MemoryEdit

Komputer digital : koleksi dari on/off switch (1 switch untuk 1 bit) untuk transformasi informasi dari 1 bentuk ke bentuk lain

CPU (Processor)Edit

Fungsi CPU:

  • Mengatur on/off switch
  • Transformasi input menjadi output (diatur oleh program)
  • Interpretasi dan eksekusi instruksi
  • Manipulasi aritmatika dan logika terhadap data
  • Berkomunikasi dengan bagian lain dari sistem komputer

Unit-unit fungsional CPU

  • Central unit : mengatur seluruh kegiatan komputer
  • Arithmetic & Logic Unit : melakukan perhitungan dan fungsi logika
  • Decode Unit : menafsirka instruksi
  • Bus Unit : mengatur jalur data bersama
  • Prefetch Unit : mengambil data sebelum dipakai untuk mempercepat proses

Multicore processor : 1 chip berisi beberapa processor yang berjalan simultan dan saling membagi pekerjaan


MemoryEdit

  1. Random Access Memory (RAM)
    • Primary storage paling umum
    • Menyimpan data dan instruksi sementara
    • Lokasi-lokasi memory memiliki alamat unik
    • Volatile (data hilang bila kehilangan power listrik)
  2. Read-only Memory (ROM)
    • Menyimpan instruksi kritis
    • Tidak dapat dihapus
  3. Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor (CMOS)
    • RAM versi hemat energi
  4. Flash Memory
    • Gabungan dari ROM dan RAM
    • Dapat ditulisi dan dihapus berulang-ulang
    • Digunakan pada kamera, smartphone, dll.

Questions & AnswersEdit

No. Question Answer
1 A gigabyte (GB) is equal to approximately ____________. 1,000 megabytes (MB)
2 The ____________ is the circuit board that contains a computer's CPU. motherboard
3 Computer memory that stores programs and data that needs to be instantly accessible to the CPU is called ____________. andom access memory (RAM)
4 The most widely used code that represents each letter, digit, and special character as a unique string of 8 bits is ____________. ASCII
5 When software that is written for one processor works with another processor, it is considered ____________. compatible
6 The processor's ____________ is the design that determines how the components of the CPU are put and work together on the chip. architecture
7 Which of the following are common input devices? Keyboards and pointing devices
8 A single chip that contains multiple cores that run simultaneously is a(n) ____________. multicore processor
9 The hardware component that executes the steps in a software program and contains the circuitry to perform instructions is called the ____________. central processing unit (CPU)
10 ____________ is used to store start-up instructions and other critical information for all modern computers. ROM
11 Because flash memory can keep its contents without a flow of electricity, it is said to be ____________. nonvolatile
12 Which of the following is a special, low-energy type of RAM that can store small amounts of data for a long time using battery power? CMOS
13 For most computer memory, access time is measured in ____________. nanoseconds
14 PC cards and ExpressCards that can be inserted or removed from a computer's slot without powering down the system are called __________. hot-swappable
15 A petabyte is equivalent to 1,024 terabytes. true
16 The most widely used computer code, ASCII, supports Japanese and Arabic. false
17 The ALU translates an instruction into a form that can be read by the CPU. false
18 One gigahertz (GHz) equals one clock cycle per second. false
19 Computers perform five basic functions: receive input, process information, produce output, store information, and create new products. false
20 The more modern language coding scheme that supports over 100,000 unique characters, including Chinese, Greek, and Japanese is known as Unicode. true
21 DIMM Circuit board for RAM chips 
CMOS Stores the computer's date, time, and calendar.
ROM Memory that contains a computer's start-up instructions 
RAM Volatile computer memory 
Bay Open areas in the system box for disk drives and other devices 
Cache Small memory space used by the CPU to eliminate bottlenecks in processing.